Elon Reeve Musk (born June 28, 1971) is a business magnate and investor. He is the founder, CEO, and Chief Engineer at SpaceX; Angel investor, CEO, and product architect of Tesla, Inc.; founder of The Boring Company; and co-founder of Neuralink and OpenAI. With an estimated net worth of around US$262 billion as of September 10, 2022, Musk is the wealthiest person in the world according to both the Bloomberg Billionaires Index and Forbes’ real-time billionaires list.
埃隆·里夫·马斯克（生于 1971 年 6 月 28 日）是一位商业巨头和投资者。他是太空探索技术公司的创始人、首席执行官和总工程师； 特斯拉的天使投资人、首席执行官和产品架构师； 无聊公司创始人；以及 神经科技和脑机接口公司与 人工智能研究实验室的联合创始人。截至 2022 年 9 月 10 日，其预计净资产约为 2620 亿美元， 根据彭博亿万富翁指数和福布斯的实时亿万富翁榜单，马斯克成为世界上最富有的人。
Musk was born in Pretoria, South Africa, where he grew up. He briefly attended the University of Pretoria before moving to Canada at age 17, acquiring citizenship through his Canadian-born mother. Two years later, he matriculated at Queen’s University and transferred to the University of Pennsylvania, where he received bachelor’s degrees in Economics and Physics. He moved to California in 1995 to attend Stanford University but decided instead to pursue a business career, co-founding the web software company Zip2 with his brother Kimbal. The startup was acquired by Compaq for $307 million in 1999. The same year, Musk co-founded online bank X.com, which merged with Confinity in 2000 to form PayPal. eBay bought PayPal in 2002, for $1.5 billion.
马斯克出生于南非比勒陀利亚，在那里长大。在 17 岁移居加拿大之前，他曾短暂就读于比勒陀利亚大学，并通过其加拿大出生的母亲获得公民身份。两年后，他考入女王大学后转入宾夕法尼亚大学，获得经济学和物理学学士学位。他于 1995 年移居加利福尼亚，就读斯坦福大学，而后决定从商，与他的弟弟金巴尔共同创立了网络软件公司 Zip2。这家初创公司于 1999 年被康柏公司以 3.07 亿美元收购。同年，马斯克与他人联合创办了线上银行 X.com，该公司于 2000 年与 Confinity 合并为 PayPal。 eBay 于 2002 年以 15 亿美元收购了 PayPal。
In 2002, Musk founded SpaceX, an aerospace manufacturer and space transport services company, of which he serves as CEO and Chief Engineer. In 2004, he was an early investor in electric vehicle manufacturer Tesla Motors, Inc. (now Tesla, Inc.). He became its chairman and product architect, eventually assuming the position of CEO in 2008. In 2006, he helped create SolarCity, a solar energy company that was later acquired by Tesla and became Tesla Energy.
2002 年，马斯克创立了 SpaceX，这是一家航空航天制造商和太空运输服务公司，并担任该公司的首席执行官和总工程师。 2004 年，他成为电动汽车制造商 Tesla Motors, Inc.（现为 Tesla, Inc.）的早期投资者。他担任该公司董事长和产品架构师，最终于 2008 年担任首席执行官一职。2006 年，他协助创建了太阳能公司 SolarCity，该公司后来被特斯拉收购并成为特斯拉能源。
In 2015, he co-founded OpenAI, a nonprofit research company promoting friendly artificial intelligence (AI). In 2016, he co-founded Neuralink, a neurotechnology company focused on developing brain–computer interfaces, and founded The Boring Company, a tunnel construction company. Musk has proposed a hyperloop high-speed vactrain transportation system and is the president of the Musk Foundation, which donates to scientific research and education.
2015 年，他与别人联合创立了 OpenAI，这是一家研究推动友善人工智能 (AI) 的非营利性研究公司。 2016 年，他与别人联合创立了专注于开发脑机接口的神经技术公司 Neuralink，并创立了隧道建设公司无聊公司。马斯克提出了一个超级高铁高速空气动力运输系统，并且担任马斯克基金会的主席，该基金会为科学研究和教育提供款项。
Musk has been criticized for making unscientific and controversial statements, such as spreading misinformation about the COVID-19 pandemic and promoting contentious perspectives regarding politics and various technologies, especially on Twitter. In 2018, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) sued Musk for tweeting that he had secured funding for a private takeover of Tesla, which the SEC characterized as false and misleading. He settled with the SEC but did not admit guilt, and he temporarily stepped down from his Tesla chairmanship. In 2019, he won a defamation case brought against him by a British caver who had advised in the Tham Luang cave rescue. In 2022, Musk agreed to purchase Twitter for $44 billion but later submitted a termination letter of the deal, leading to lawsuits between both parties.
马斯克因发表不科学及有争议的言论而受到批评，例如散布有关 COVID-19 大流行的错误信息，以及宣传有关政治和各种技术的有争议的观点，尤其是在推特上。 2018 年，美国证券交易委员会 (SEC) 起诉马斯克在推特上称他已获得私人收购特斯拉的资金，美国证券交易委员会认为其为虚假和误导性信息。他与美国证券交易委员会达成和解，但没有认罪，他暂时辞去了特斯拉董事长的职务。 2019 年，他赢得了一位曾为睡美人洞救援提供建议的英国洞穴探险者对他提起的诽谤诉讼。 2022 年，马斯克同意以 440 亿美元收购 推特，但后来提交了终止交易协议函，导致双方发生诉讼。